What is Hyperglycaemia?
Hyperglycaemia or high blood sugar is a state in which extreme amount of glucose mingles in the bloodstreams. It is known to affect the people who are already diabetic. This generally happens when the blood sugar level of a person treated with diabetes, abnormally elevates. There are many reasons for the cause of hyperglycaemia in diabetic people, which includes sickness, different food and physical exercise choices, missing or avoiding proper intake of medication which lowers glucose, non-diabetes medication. It is rightly said “precaution is better than cure”, if hyperglycaemia is not treated on time it may lead to severe conditions such as diabetic coma. And in the long run a person with persistent hyperglycaemia can end up getting their nerves, heart, kidney and eyes affected. Henceforth awareness of hyperglycaemia symptoms is very important for all. The sooner you recognise its traits the better.
Causes of Hyperglycaemia
In the process of digestion, our body creates sugar by breaking down carbohydrates from the food consumed. These sugar molecules are known as glucose which serve as the major source of energy in our body. The glucose created is directly absorbed into our bloodstreams. However, glucose cannot enter the cells without the assistance of insulin. The glucose level in our blood goes up which acts as a signal to the pancreas (a gland behind our stomach) to secrete insulin. Insulin behaves like a key to the locks of the cells, once it is secreted, it unlocks the cells and allows glucose to enter the cells. Glucose is the fuel cells require to function appropriately. All the extra glucose is stashed in the muscles and liver as glycogen.
This entire process helps keep your blood sugar in check. Diabetes radically diminishes the influence of insulin in the body. There are two reasons why this can happen, either the pancreas have stopped producing insulin or the body has become resistant to the results of insulin else the pancreas are unable to yield enough insulin to maintain the level of glucose in the blood. In either case the glucose keeps building up in your bloodstream causing hyperglycaemia.
Some Causes of hyperglycaemia are:
- Infection or illness
- Use of certain medicines like steroids
- Avoiding the use of diabetes medicines or insulin
- Using expired insulin or not injecting them properly
- Getting Injuries or having a surgery
- Emotional stress
Stress or sickness acts like a catalyst to hyperglycaemia as the hormones produced to fight stress or sickness also causes the sugar level in the blood to rise. During severe sicknesses even a normal person who does not suffer from diabetes might develop hyperglycaemia. So the people having diabetes need to take extra care to keep their blood sugar down when they are sick or stressed.
Symptoms of Hyperglycaemia
Hyperglycaemia symptoms are recognizable when the glucose level increases significantly – anything above 200 ml/dl is dangerous. When we talk about hyperglycaemia symptoms, well they nearly take days to show up, and it is not safe to have increased blood sugar for a long time. However the case is different for the type 2 diabetic people as in spite of increased blood sugar it takes a long time to show hyperglycaemia symptoms. Identifying the symptoms at an early stage will help you in treating them in time. A few early signs of hyperglycaemia are:
- Blurred vision
- Frequent urination
- Increased thirst
Later Hyperglycaemia symptoms:
If at all hyperglycaemia is failed to be treated, ketones a kind of toxic acids would build up in your urine and blood. Following are few signs and symptoms for the same:
- Abdominal pain
- Dry mouth
- Nausea and vomiting
- Shortness of breath
- Fruity- smelling breath
If you have to happen to experience any of the following, you need to consult a doctor as soon as possible.
- You are suffering from vomiting or diarrhoea
- Have fever from over a day
- If you are going through a tough time bringing down your blood glucose
- If your blood glucose is above 240 mg/dl
Get yourself hospitalised if any of the two happens:
- If you have ketones in your urine and the blood glucose is persistently above 240 mg/dl
- Suffering from vomiting and diarrhoea in such extreme that it gets difficult to stomach any fluids or food.
There are many diseases out there but proper care and health check-ups help avoid such diseases. Make sure you contact a good doctor if you are suffering from any of the above Hyperglycaemia Symptoms. The disease could prove deadly if not treated on time. After all health is the most crucial part of your life.